The Capacity for Civic Engagement: Public and Private Worlds of the Self
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There are many opportunities for the development of relationships across grades in a JK—12 school. The whole community comes together in the auditorium or gym to share experiences throughout the year, and frequently, JK—5th graders share classroom activities with each other. Students also interact with each other across grade levels formally and informally. Teachers contact each other throughout the year with opportunities for meaningful connections: Senior Kindergarteners exploring planes and levers with blocks may meet with Upper School physics students, or 2nd graders learning to listen and respond in book clubs may observe older students discussing a novel.
Adults from around the building visit classrooms to share a story and tell the students about themselves. Each senior serves as a Big Brother or Sister to a class in JK—8th grade, visiting monthly during a Morning Ex and spending time as their schedules permit. Seniors help their younger counterparts with lessons, play games and talk. It is always a joy to observe a younger student encountering a Big Brother or Sister in the hallways, witnessing their comfort and delight as they approach their older friends with confidence.
Through the community service project, K-Walking, 4th graders walk Junior and Senior Kindergarteners from their cars on Webster Avenue to their classrooms, providing safe passage as well as meaningful interactions that help the youngsters transition smoothly into their school day. Parker is an environment that seeks to establish a sense of community among all members, regardless of their age or location in the building.
Middle School. The Middle School Community Service program gives Parker students the opportunity to learn about themselves by working in different neighborhoods and institutions. Students organize activities, provide assistance and discover and implement solutions to real-life problems. As a result, they can strengthen their self-esteem, solidify their capacity to feel empathy for others and deepen their understanding of what it means to be responsible citizens in a democratic society.
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Guided by faculty and parent co-facilitators, each small group spends eight mornings during the year working at an agency or on a project. Although the program primarily provides students with learning outside of school, the classroom is not abandoned. In conjunction with their on-site learning, students read articles, see films and participate in other projects appropriate to the service they are providing.
One of the themes of community service is helping Middle School students move beyond the familiar, to encourage them to explore new situations and encounter a variety of people with open minds and hearts. The hope is that this will encourage them to grow as empathetic human beings who can understand the world from more than one perspective. Despite public funding, the work of restoring and maintaining these ships is directed and handled by crews of volunteers [ 6 ]. With its maritime traditions historically central to Norwegian identity, the preservation of old ships is culturally prestigious.
Volunteers in this area both enjoy the status of doing work with recognized meaning and represent a significant resource in Norwegian society [ 6 ]. Volunteers are mostly men between ages 17 and 85, with some two-thirds in their 50s and 60s [ 6 ]. One dimension of a larger trend toward higher individualism in Western societies is suggested by research that indicates a rising commitment and growth in non-organized volunteering, focused on the personal rewards of altruistic service but without the requirement of formal memberships [ 12 ].
Social benefits of volunteering redound to the volunteers themselves, and in particular show a positive health impact. The authors further conclude that socially-inclusive volunteering yields health benefits, with especially positive effects on older people. Social inclusion has been widely recognized as a key social determinant of health. As defined by the World Health Organization, the Social Determinants of Health SDOH are the conditions in which people are born, grow, live, work, and age; included in this conception, but extending well beyond it, is the local health system [ 7 ].
These circumstances are shaped by the distribution of money, power, and resources at global, national, and local levels, which again are influenced by policy choices [ 7 ]. In the World Health Report showed that health and health equity are a function of determinants that are broadly categorizable as social, cultural, and material.
Every aspect of government and economy has the potential to affect these outcomes. In a specific situation, of course it might be difficult isolate, for instance, social and cultural determinants. Each volunteer experiences volunteering differently, but shifting overall patterns can be seen. Today there is a growth in individual, spontaneous, non-organized participation among younger adults in Norway, suggesting a changing picture of civic engagement, away from more organized and structured forms [ 13 ].
In this study we understand the latter as traditions—group-specific frames of understanding and structures of meaning. As participation as is not only seen to strengthen ties to the local community, it is also seen as a potential pathway for social capital to influence health outcomes [ 8 ].
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Improving health and well being require empowering individuals by community participation and social cohesion [ 7 ]. Recognizing this impact has led to a focus on SDOHs in health policies internationally [ 7 ]. At the same time more and more elderlies are keeping up their activities in traditional organized volunteering [ 13 ]. According to the continuity theory, adults show inertia in persisting with previous and present activities and mental structures.
By adapting strategies to sustain previous activities the individual experiences the feeling of continuity [ 14 ]. Gender and age are significant parameters of choices of leisure-time activities including volunteer work. International literature tells us that most volunteers come from wealthier, more educated sections of society, are female, and married with children [ 15 ]. Age as well as gender are significant parameters of how leisure time is used. Motivations for volunteering change during the life cycle.
Research showed that volunteers with children living at home are less likely to volunteer, and spend less hours in volunteer work [ 16 ]. Divorced males are more likely to volunteer than divorced females, but older widows tend to increase their volunteering activities [ 16 ]. There is equal involvement in volunteer work between genders in older age, but woman are more socially active earlier in life [ 17 ].
A local study shows that male volunteers over the age of 67 are the most active with regard to volunteer efforts [ 18 ]. In a previous study we found that volunteering within ship preservation attracts this group [ 6 ]. We go on now to explore deeper the reason for this attraction, examining the reasons, motives, rewards, and broader social and health impacts of this participation. In Norway research shows that younger women participate more than younger men but that older men participate more than older women [ 13 ].
Living in fast-paced, continually technologically destabilized modern culture is often experienced as volatile. The experienced reality fills up with the new and not-yet-categorized while the known and appreciated is fading.
This process even involves cultural categories and concepts. The feeling of loss generated can mobilize volunteers to organize, save and restore key objects that incarnate important meanings and experiences of the past. Restoring these objects together and reliving memories prevents the feeling of loss and uncertainty, and simultaneously generates new sources of social capital.
These themes are clearly displayed in the interviews, where volunteers refer to personal experiences and memories as they speak about what motivates and rewards their volunteer work. As volunteers contribute to society, they also earn social appreciation and respect.
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Findings from a number of studies show a strong relationship between volunteering and health [ 19 ], as well as self-worth. Both social inclusion and the gaining social capital might here be seen as reward for volunteer work. A model for this is offered by Social Integration Theory [ 20 ], which suggests how multiple social roles provide meaning and purpose in life and additionally promote social support and interaction. Social activities alone encourage feeling good about oneself [ 21 ].
The positive impact not only directly benefits individuals but also those close to them [ 15 , 23 ]. Empowerment of elderlies as defined by WHO is understood in relation to the social discrimination older persons experience by being excluded from decision-making by age or disability [ 24 ]. Barriers to empowerment lie ingrained in current Western cultural norms, abetted by fast technological change and a valorization of novelty and youth.
Additionally elderly people often face problems to adapt to the changes arising simply from old age. Frequent consequences are experience of powerlessness, helplessness, low self-esteem, and low self-efficacy [ 25 ]. To prevent elderlies from becoming passive and facing the risks to health social withdrawal entails, contact with the community needs to be supported.
International research demonstrates that volunteering leads to better health and that older volunteers are those most likely to receive physical- and mental-health benefits from their volunteer activities [ 15 , 27 , 28 , 29 ]. In one review, volunteering as a public-health promotion intervention, was found to improve physical and mental outcome variables [ 30 ]. Another longitudinal study, originally including over 10, informants, showed that the consistency of volunteering over time is positively related to both well-being and self-reported health [ 15 ].
Other studies propose that older adult volunteers may enjoy good health and longevity because being useful to others instills a sense of being needed and valued [ 31 ]. Here Morrow-Howell et al. Recently published research shows that the feeling of purpose in life may extend ones lifespan [ 32 ].
These findings underscore that the positive effects of volunteering for elderlies is more than an effect of selection bias, presuming that healthier elders are likelier to volunteer in the first place. Volunteering as used in this article is understood as an organized, private, self-governed activity without a predominantly commercial purpose or expectation of personal profit.
Empowerment is in this article seen as an approach to increase the capacity to act both of individuals and groups of people, and entire communities, through a combination of top-down and bottom-up processes [ 33 ]. It is furthermore seen as an approach, mounting in a community capacity-building process. Our data are based on 14 in-depth, semi-structured interviews, from randomly selected volunteers working on ships receiving funds from the Directorate of Heritage for the year [ 6 ].
Representing the field of volunteering on historic vessels the 14 informants were male, age 18 to 74, representing an age distribution common in the field of volunteer work on historic ships [ 6 ]. Two were in the age group 18—30, one in the group 31—50, ten in the group 51—70, and one informant in the group 71 and more. This represents the overall age distribution in the field of volunteer ship preservation in Norway [ 6 ].
These interviewees were each participants with one of the 82 Norwegian volunteer organizations receiving state funding for preserving and maintaining a total of 90 historical ships in [ 6 ]. Data saturation was achieved by the 13th interview [ 34 ]. After each interview the authors coded, clustered, and grouped and thereafter analyzed the gained data on the basis of grounded theory [ 35 ]. The analysis started with open coding in order to capture important concepts and themes and to illustrate central statements.
Deductive methods were used to assess variation in the material. Next we identified key themes that emerged across all groups and interviews, as well as unique issues mentioned only by a single respondent, all based on reflection on the material by authors [ 34 ].